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Stages of Roasting
Note: Agtron numbers represent degree or darkness of roast. The smaller the Agtron number the darker the roast. The Agtron number preceding the slash indicates the darkness of the coffee in whole-bean form; the number following the slash indicates the darkness of the coffee in ground form.

Stage Bean Properties Mass Loss Agtron Number Temperature (F) Bean Appearance
Unroasted Raw bean is 12% water by mass. 0.0% 99-81 Room Temp. Green and smooth.
Cinnamon Volatile vapors cause bean to expand. 13.0% 80-75 00-275 Light brown. Grainy grassy smell. Light body, minimal aroma, tea-like flavor. No oil on surface of bean.
American Bean is still expanding. This is the stage where "first crack" begins. Acidity content higher than sugar. 14.0% 74-65 335-375 Larger in size. Bright acidity, green coffee distinctions clear. Surface of bean remains dry.
City Bean almost at maximum expansion. "First crack" stage is finished. 15.0% 64-60 390-425 Beans show physical cracks from release of gasses.
Full City Bean at max expansion. Balance of acids and sugars. "Second crack" stage has just started. 16.5% 60-50 435-445 Bean chips begin to fly off. Smooth and brown. Oil is barely visible. Balanced acidity, fuller body. Generally dry bean surface.
Vienna More gasses are lost. "Second crack" is finished. 17.0% 49-45 445-455 ark brown. Beans have oil on them. Hints of bittersweetness emerge. Muted acidity, heavier body.
Espresso Aromas decrease. Sugars caramelize. 18.0% 44-35 455-465 Black and spots of oil, shiny surface. Bittersweet roast notes dominate Acidity and muted.
French French Acids radically decrease. Sugars caramelize. 19.0% 34-25 465-475 Dark black. Very oily. Burnt smell. covered brightly with oil. Bitter/bittersweet tones dominate. Body thins, green coffee distinctions are fully muted.
Italain Bean loses characteristic coffee flavor. 20.0% 24-15 475-505 Black, oil is dried off. Shiny surface. Burned bitter tones dominate.

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